Objective: Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides an introduction to the theoretical fundamentals as well as application of CFD in analyzing flow and heat transfer problems of practical engineering interest. A detailed overview of the theory and numerics of CFD is provided. Students are trained to preprocess raw geometric data, mesh it and develop a CFD model. The students will understand the process of developing a geometrical model of the flow, applying appropriate boundary conditions, specifying solution parameters, and visualizing the results keeping in mind the theory behind the CFD process. Students are expected to know the limitations, accuracy, errors and challenges ahead in CFD solutions.
Introduction: Basics of heat transfer, fluid flow, Mathematical description of fluid flow and heat & transfer: conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species, classification of partial differential equations, coordinate systems, boundary conditions.
Discretization techniques : Discretisation techniques using finite difference methods: Taylor-Series and control volume formulations,Finite element discretization techniques,Meshing techniques.
Modelling of diffusion problems using finite volume method: One dimensional steady state diffusion problems; discretization technique, Solution methodology for linear and non-linear problems: Point-by-point iteration, TDMA,Two and three dimensional discretization, Discretization of unsteady diffusion problems: Explicit, Implicit and Crank-Nicolson’s algorithm; stability of solutions.
Modelling of Convection- Diffusion Problems: One dimensional convection-diffusion problem: Central difference scheme, Discretization based on analytical approach (exponential scheme), Hybrid and power law discretization techniqies, Higher order schemes (QUICK algorithm), Assessment of schemes for conservativeness, boundedness, transportiveness & accuracy.
Flow modeling: Discretization of incompressible flow equations, Pressure based algorithm: SIMPLE, SIMPLER etc.
Unstructured grids: Introduction to FVM with unstructured grids.
Introduction to turbulence modeling: Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), Boundary layer separation.
Projects / Exercises/ Publications: Solving simplified problems: formulation, discretization with coarse grids, applying appropriate boundary and initial conditions and solving by hand calculations, Solving practical problems through software: CAD pre-processing and mesh generation techniques, writing user sub-routines; post-processing and interpretation of results.
Course materials:01. Introduction to CFD [download ppt], 02. Conservation equations [download ppt], 03. Flow classifications [download ppt], 04. Solution method: Diffusion equation [download ppt], 05. Solution method: Convection-Diffusion equaiton [download ppt], 06.Finite Volume Method for Unsteady Flows [download ppt], 07.Solution Algorithm - Convection Diffusion [download ppt], 08. Introduction to Turbulence [download ppt], Turbulence can be scary [video], Touchdown turbulence rocks airplane [video], Structure of boundary layer: LES simulation [video], Vortex formation in free jet [video], Boeing 777 wing test [video], Tacoma bridge collapse [video], 09.Turbulent Boundary Layers &Turbulence Models [download ppt], Smoke flow visualization under turbulent flow [video], Rocket nozzle start-up CFD [video].
Question papers: Exams are held to test the students skill. CFD is not only about knowing theory, its also about knowing how to do it. Students are allowed use internet, mobile, laptops etc. Exam rules are mentioned in the question paper. Question paper: IIT BHU Practical examSet A, Set B, Set C
FEM model of Eiffel tower
2. Applied Finite Element Method (FEM) (ME505, Aug-Dec)
Students rating: 4.58/5
Contact me for conducting practical FEM training/workshop at your institute/company.
Pre-requisites: Solid mechanics, prior exposure to design software, engineering mathematics
Objective:Graduate students including masters and PhD students study lots of theory of Finite Element Method but when comes to the application of theory in solving real world problems, they either lack the skill and/or don’t know to approach the problem. A real world problem involve all kind of physics and geometry simultaneously, for example, a car undergoes thermal, NVH, CFD, static loads, fatigue, linear and non-linear dynamics with various geometry shapes such as thin and thick sheets, thin and thick beam etc. Hence, students need practical exposure to such multidisciplinary problems. Keeping this in mind, this course has been designed to provide SKILL to the students on industry standard tools and practices using Applied FEM. At the end of the course, the students are expected learn the theory as well as quality meshing and analysis techniques of various types (1D, 2D, 3D) using variety of element types. Students will be given design problems and they are expected to solve it using FEM tools.The course will also be taught be experts from various industries who have extensive experience in handling FEA tools and design processes.
Introduction to FEM: Basics of statics, strength of materials and FEM, CAE driven design process, Analysis types: linear, non-linear, dynamic, buckling, thermal, Fatigue, optimization, CFD, NVH etc, 1D, 2D, 3D methods, Degree of freedom, Advantages of FEM, Modeling/Pre-processing techniques, introduction to meshing, common mistakes and errors, Application of analysis types in various engineering fields.
FEM-Weighted Residue Approach: Non-weak type methods- methods adopted to minimize errors: Subdomain, Galerkin, Petrov-Galerking, Least Square, Collocation; Weak form type method: Rayleigh-Ritz method, Finite element method, Global stiffness matrix, Shape functions, Direct application of element matrix equations, FEM based on stationary of a functional, Principle of stationary total potential, Compatibility, Convergence criteria, Sources of errors, 1D and 2D problems in heat transfer, fluid flow, vibration etc. and comparison with exact solution.
1-D Meshing : Introduction to meshing, when to use 1-D meshing, meshing in critical areas, element section, stiffness matrix derivation (direct method) and its properties, element types: beam element, rigid elements, fasteners, problems based on 1-D FEM and comparison with exact theory.
2-D Meshing: When to use 2-D elements, mid-surface, Constraint strain triangle, different types of element and their displacement function, Family of 2-D elements: plane stress, plan strain, plate, membrane, thin shell etc., effect of mesh density, effect of biasing in critical region, boundary conditions, how not to mesh, shrink wrap meshing, problems based on 2-D FEM and comparison with exact theory.
3-D Meshing: When to use 3-D elements, DOF for solid elements, Algorithms, brick meshing, how not to mesh, Hexa and Penta elements, solid map meshing.
Element Quality and Checks: Compatibility and mechanisms, spring elements, shells to solids, beam to solids, beams normal to shells, beam to shell edge, General element quality checks: skewness, aspect ratio, warpage, jacobian; 2-D quality checks, quality checks for tetra meshing, brick mesh quality checks, student projects on mesh quality.
Weld, Bolt and Shrink Fit Modeling: Welding simulation-modelling spot and arc welding, bolted joints, bearing simulation, shrink fit simulation.
FEM vs. FVM: Solving structural and fluid flow problems using FEM and Finite Volume Method (FVM), comparision in terms of accuracy, solution time, grid sizes etc.
Linear Static and Dynamic Analysis: Stiffness matrix, stress and strain calculations,FEM model for linear analysis, error analysis, design problems based on linear analysis, Theory of dynamic analysis: forced and free vibration, mode shapes, harmonic analysis, design for avoiding resonance.
Thermal Analysis: Conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, structured and unstructured meshing, IC engine block thermal analysis, Introduction to CFD.
Nonlinear analysis: Introduction to non-linearity, types of non-linearity: geometric non-linearity, material non-linearity, boundary non-linearity/contact non-linearity, stress-strain measures, general procedures for nonlinear static analysis, plasticity.
Applied FEM: Projects based on thermal analysis, CFD, Fatigue analysis, NVH analysis, Crash analysis etc., application of FEA in biomedical, implant designs such asOrthopaedic Implants, Spine Implants, Cardiovascular Implants, medical device components, automotive, aerospace, civil etc.
Course materials:1. Introduction to Applied FEM [download ppt], 2. FEM Weighted-Residue Approach [download ppt] (contains Subdomain, Galerkin, Petrov-Galerking, Least Square, Collocation; Weak form type method: Rayleigh-Ritz method with solved examples) Lab materials: 1. Model for geometry per-processing: Geometry file: Human dummy.step or HyperMesh file: Human dummy.hm 2. Model for feature lines tweaking for improved mesh quality: Airplane.step or HyperMesh file: Airplane.hm , Modeling teeth for biomedical application [teeth.hm], Bracket for tetra mesh and reverse engineering [bracket.stp], Scan data to geometry of a car [porsche.stl], 1D, 2D and 3D FEM model [1D2D3D.hm], FEM vs FVM: Cantilever beam I section [Cantilever.hm] [Cantilever.sim] Question papers: Quiz 1 question paper [pdf], Final exam question paper [pdf], Geometry [bottle.iges], flow in pipes [pipe]
3. Concept-to-Market: Product Design and Innovation (Feb-June, tbo)
Product innovation: What is innovation, stages of innovation process, Microeconomics effect of innovation, Effect of product innovation, Innovations and market failure, Firms competition through innovations, History of breakthrough innovations, society needs, Innovation for survival, Innovations in Indian context.
Product design, Idea visualization techniques and Manufacturing processes: Sketching, rendering, basic model-making and prototyping skills, computer aided design, Solid modelling, Identifying customer needs, Product architecture, computational shape systems, Design evaluation, Human centric design. 2D and 3D CAD systems, Production processes and factors which influence design decisions, Use of CAE tools, 3D CAD generation techniques using reverse engineering, manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing with 3D printer, manufacturing management and simulation of production systems, Failure analysis, Design projects.
Materials technology: Materials properties and their suitability in product design and performance, Surface properties and surface engineering, Production, characterization and specification of raw materials. Process selection: comparative properties and economics, process selection charts.
Product Ergonomics, Economics and management: Design for people, User Centred Design innovation, human factors, Rise of the Consumer, Mass Consumption, Marketing, Symbols Design and Graphics, Man-Machine: Ergonomic case study, Business economics: economics of production processes and costs, product demand and the theory and practice of pricing; Business Organization: Planning and organizing, innovation and change, human resource management, Bio-design innovation.
Basic Electronics for Product Design: Role of electronics in Product Design, Basic principles of Electrical Circuits, How to read a circuit diagram, Types of sensor and transducer, Digital and analogue signals, Prototyping circuits using standard components, Resistor and capacitor (RC) circuits and band pass filters, Using accelerometers and Hall effect sensors, Incremental testing approach to build complex systems, Data acquisition and data manipulation, Boolean logic AND, OR, NOT, XOR, Design projects.
Entrepreneurship and Business plan: How and why business plan, structure of a business plan for a start-up venture, pitching the plans, legal and liability issues, fundraising, not for profit businesses, cost-benefit analysis, marketing plan, registration process of start-up companies.
Intellectual Property rights and Laws: Patents, trademarks, designs, copyright, trade secrets, domain names, patent issues, patent writing techniques, priority and patent issues, Indian and PCT patent procedures, patent case studies.
Fluid statics: Body and surface forces, Stress at a point, State of stress in fluid at rest and in motion, Pressure distribution in hydrostatics, manometers, forces on plane and curved surfaces, Buoyancy and the concept of stability of floating and submerged bodies.
Fluid kinematics: Scalar and vector fields, Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, Material derivative,Velocity and acceleration, Streamline, Streak line and path line, Deformation, rotation and vorticity, Deformation rate and strain rate tensor, Circulation.
Fluid flow: System and control volume approaches, Transport theorems, Continuity equation, Euler's equation, Bernoulli's equation, Momentum equations for stationary, moving and rotating control volumes, Application of Bernoulli's equation, static and dynamic pressure.
Fluid measurements: Pitot tube, Siphon, Venturimeter, Orificemeter, Mouthpiece, Sudden expansion in apipe, Weirs and notches.
Viscous incompressible flow: Introduction to Navier Stokes equation, Boundary layer flow, Drag and lift, Laminar and turbulent flow, Couette flow, Plane Poisuille and Hagen Poisuille flow.
Internal viscous flow: Reynolds experiment, Critical Reynolds number, Darcy - Weisbach and Fanning friction factor, Moody's diagram, Minor losses and flow through simple network of pipes.
Principal of similarity: physical similarity, Dimensional Analysis, Buckingham pi theorem, Model studies and dimensionless parameters, Froude number, Euler number,Mach number, Weber number.
Advanced topics: Introduction to computational fluid dynamics, types of boundary conditions, mesh generation techniques, solving simple fluid mechanics problems using CFD.
Quickly derive the partial differential equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of an incompressible Newtonian fluid for a given problem.
Learn the scale analysis of the differential equation
Solve some exact solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for certain flow conditions
Derive the boundary layer equations and show how to obtain exact and approximate integral solutions.
Learn the basics of turbulent flow and its various applications
Review of conservation equations in Cartesian and Curvilinear co-ordinates, one dimensional viscous flow through perforated pipes and porous medium.
Two dimensional viscous flow: Navier- Stokes equations. Reynolds principle of similarity. Exact solutions of Navier- Stokes equations, differential equations of very slow motion. The hydrodynamic theory of lubrication, heat generation due to viscous dissipation.
Boundary layer equations for two dimensional steady flow. Separation of boundary layer. Integration of boundary layer equations. Skin friction. General properties of boundary layer equations.
Exact and approximate methods of the solution of two dimensional steady state incompressible boundary layer equations. Flow past a wedge, Flow in the wake of flat plate zero incidence.
Fundamentals of Turbulent Flow: Calculation of turbulent flows-fundamental equations.
Principles of theory of stability, Prandtl mixing length. Von Karman’s similarity hypothesis. Universal velocity distribution laws. Turbulent flow through pipe. Relation between law of friction and velocity distribution. Universal velocity distribution and resistance laws for smooth pipes at very large Reynolds numbers. Turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. Flat plate, Rotating discs.
6. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer (ME624, Feb-June)
Pre-requisites: Fluid mechanics, engineering mathematics, thermodynamics Objective:Convective heat and mass transfers are encountered in various domains, including heat exchangers, electric and microelectronics cooling, automotive and aerospace, air conditioning, fuel cells cooling, building engineering as well as conversion of renewable energy. With products becoming small and compact, it is a challenge to design an efficient and failure free product based on heat transfer principles. This course introduces fundamental principles of heat transfer equations and their applications to variety of fluid systems and to derive simple relations using scale analysis principles. Students are also expected to carry out simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of variety of fluid systems as a part of the course assignments and validate the heat transfer and Nusselt numbers with the order of magnitude relations obtained by the scale and exact analysis. This course will familiarize students with the experimentally derived CORRELATIONS for estimating heat/mass transfer coefficient in a variety of flow situations.
Governing Equations: Continuity, Momentum and Energy Equations, reduction of equations for various fluid flow systems, boundary layer approximations to momentum and energy, scale analysis
Laminar external flow and heat transfer: Scale analysis, similarity solutions for flat plate (Blasius solution), scale analysis of thick and thin thermal boundary layer, Integral method solutions for flow over an isothermal flat plate, flat plate with constant heat flux and with varying surface temperature, flows with pressure gradient.
Laminar internal flow and heat transfer: (a) Exact solutions to N-S equations for flow through channels and circular pipe, Fully developed forced convection in pipes with different wall boundary conditions, Forced convection in the thermal entrance region of ducts and channels (Graetz solution), heat transfer in the combined entrance region, (b) Integral method for internal flows with different wall boundary conditions.
Natural convection heat transfer: Governing equations for natural convection, Boussinesq approximation, Scale analysis: thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers, Scale analysis in flow in vertical plate, Walls different boundary conditions: constant temperature and heat flux, Similarity and integral solutions, effects of inclination, Natural convection in enclosures, mixed convection heat transfer past vertical plate and in enclosures.
Turbulent convection: Governing equations for averaged turbulent flow field (RANS), Analogies between heat and Mass transfer (Reynolds, Prandtl-Taylor and von Karman Analogies), Turbulence Models (Zero, one and two equation models), Turbulent flow and heat transfer across flat plate and circular tube, Turbulent natural convection heat transfer, Empirical correlations for different configurations.
Convective mass transfer: Mass conservation, mass diffusivities, laminar forced convection, internal forced convection, natural convection: mass and heat transfer driven flows, turbulent flows: time averaged concentration equation, effect of chemical reaction.
Course materials: 01. Governing equations [download ppt], 02. Rules for scale analysis [download ppt], 03. Scale analysis of laminar boundary layer flow [download ppt], Boundary layer separation [video], Boundary layer flow [video] 04. Scale analysis of laminar duct flow [download ppt], 05. Scale analysis of external natural convection [download ppt], 06. Scale analysis of convective mass transfer [download ppt], 07. Scale analysis of internal natural convection [download ppt] Final exam question:download
7. Energy Conversion Devices [turbomachinery] (ME307, Feb-June)
Students rating: 4.82/5
Pre-requisites: Fluid mechanics Objective: This course is designed to give under graduate students in Mechanical Engineering experience in applying principles of basic engineering science to the design and analysis of various types of turbomachinery.
Thermodynamics, Thermal power plants: Gas and steam power cycles, Regenerative and reheat cycles,
Turbo Machinery: Classification Similitude and specific speeds, Euler turbine equation, Velocity triangles. Turbine and compressor cascades. Axial-flow turbines and compressors: Stage efficiency and characteristics, Radial equilibrium, Governing.
Fans, blowers and compressors: Slip factor, performance characteristics.
Hydraulic Machines; Pelton wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines, Draft tubes, Pumps, Cavitation, Fluid coupling and torque converter, Use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in turbomachinary design.
Basic concepts, pressure measurement, zeroth law of thermodynamics, temperature measurement, work and heat transfer
First law of thermodynamics, thermodynamics processes for ideal gas for closed system, steady and unsteady processes for open system, PMMI
Second law of thermodynamics , kelvin Planck and Clausius statements, heat engine, refrigerator & heat pump ,PMMII, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle & theorems , Absolute temperature scale
Entropy , Clausius inequality ,entropy increase principle , entropy changes for processes, entropy and disorder ,third law of thermodynamics , concept of available energy
Gas power cycles , Ericsson , Stirling , Otto , Diesel , Dual ,Brayton , comparison of different cycles
Properties of pure substances , p-v , T-v , T-s , h-s , and p-h diagrams , Clausius Clayperon equation , thermodynamics property tables and processes of pure substances , Maxwell’s relation ,ideal gas mixtures
Vapour power cycles : ideal and real Rankine cycles , Refrigeration cycles : reverse Brayton , vapour compression and vapour absorption cycles
Assignments: First law of thermodynamics assignment [download pdf, docx], Entropy and second law of thermodynamics [download pdf, docx], Gas power cycles [ppt], Vapour power cycle ,Refrigeration cycle & Exergy Analysis [ppt]
Introduction: Classification of I.C. engine, Fundamental difference between S.I. and C.I. Engines, Comparison of two stroke and four stroke engines, various components, their functions, Types of efficiency, indicated and brake power, theory of carburetion, Air Standard cycles (Diesel, Otto, Dual, Stirling, Brayton) and their comparison, measurement and testing techniques. Measurement of Indicated power, brake power, fuel consumption.
Combustion and control: Thermodynamics of fuel-air cycles, real cycles, various losses in actual engines. Combustion processes in SI engine and its various stages, spark ignition, normal and abnormal combustion, knock pre-ignition, combustion stages in CI engines, ignition delay, types of combustion systems, Fuel spray behaviour, Exhaust emissions, its measurement and control, Thermochemistry of fuel air mixtures: combustion stoichiometry, first and laws of thermodynamics and combustion.
Heat rejection and cooling: Temperature distributions of various components, heat transfer theory, parameters effecting engine heat transfer, need and type of cooling systems.
Engine Performance and characteristics: Engine performance characteristics (EPC), Variables affecting performance characteristics, Methods of improving EPC, Heat balance, Performance maps, turbochargers and superchargers.
No idea theft, no cut & paste
10. Research Methodology (RM600, Feb-June, shared)
Compulsory course MS, PhD
Why research/getting research ideas/ executing research
Aspect of teacher-students relationship/stress management
Copyright, Plagiarism, ethics in research
Intellectual property rights, patents, how to right patents etc.
Introduction to IIT Mandi library resources
Introduction to Latex/Google docs
Common errors in English, technical paper/proposal writing
Best practices for numerical simulations & experimentation
Safety precautions in experiments
Result analysis/scrutinizing, communication.
·Evaluation based on:
Publication: Wikipedia article
Course materials 1. Ethics in research [download ppt] 2. Research data management [download ppt] 3. Copyrights, patents, trademarks, patent cases [download ppt], Ideas cannot be patented: Yeh chand sa raushan chehra [video]
The students will focus on software/hardware in this reverse engineering (RE) course. In the process of RE students understand existing technologies, functions, features, objects, components and systems. By carefully disassembling, observing,testing, analyzing and reporting, students can understand how a product works and suggest ways it can be improved. This process requires careful observation, disassembly, documentation, analysis and reporting. Many times, the reverse engineering process is non-destructive. This means that the object or component can be reassembled and still function just as it did before it was taken apart. Throughout the reverse engineering project, the students should be able to think of ways the products could be improved. Is there some way it could function better? or manufactured less expensively? The students will use observations to make suggestions for improvement of the product.This is a vital step towards designing new products/prototypes.
After the completion of this course, students should be able to:
The basic understanding of engineering systems.
Understanding the terminologies related to re-engineering, forward engineering, and reverse engineering.
Disassemble products and specify the interactions between its subsystems and their functionality
Understanding of Reverse Engineering methodologies.
Forward Engineering Design, Design Thought and Process, Design Steps, System RE, RE Methodology, RE Steps, System level Design, and Examples, Product Development, Product Functions, Engineering Specifications, Product Architecture, Mechanical RE, Computer-Aided RE, Electronic RE, Identify electronic components, PCB RE, Schematic Drawings and Analysis, S/W RE, Reverse Engineering in Computer Applications, Re-engineering of PLC programs etc.
Protection with IPR: Just observe the size of MNC and Indian company
12. IPR and Patent Procedures (tbo) Objectives:
IIT Mandi engages in various design and innovation activities and in the process, it generates wealth of Intellectual properties. However, students emerging from the institute lack any training in Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). There is a need for developing skills in filing, reading and exploiting patents which will be crucial in the years to come.
At the end of this course students will have an in-depth appreciation of the significance of the IPR protection system as a tool for technology innovation, technology transfer and the creation of greater wealth and value for the institute and individuals.
Students will have a good knowledge of the national and international IPR protection systems and their implications for business, including the impact of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPs); relevance of the international conventions and treaties, resolutions of disputes and enforcements of IPRs.
Understanding of procedures relating to the acquisition and protection of IPs.
Students are expected to convert their innovations into IPR at the end of the course. Credit award will primarily focus in this aspect.
Contents Introduction to Intellectual property rights